The fact that the mouth cavity may be a source of infection to all the human organism was known as far back as ancient times. Mouth cavity diseases (stomatopathies) are very frequent; they take place in 80% children and almost in all of adult people. Pathologic processes are most frequently of inflammatory nature. The mucous membrane of mouth is the important barrier of the human organism. It is linked closely with many internal organs and systems. Stomatopathies may arise in various causes. Such causes include traumas, deficiency of vitamins and microelements, general reduction in immunity, allergenic reactions, infections, dental tartar, and bad hygienic condition of mouth cavity. As the mouth cavity mucous membrane is involved frequently in various pathological processes running in the human body, study of its condition enables to get important information. Changes in mouth cavity parietes may arise during the disease and long before its first signs occur manifesting the disorders in the body organs and systems.
Various information sources state that mouth cavity may contain from 3 to 5 thousands of various microorganisms which are both beneficial and pathogenic ones, the latter ones cause various diseases in humans and manifest an ailment. Mouth cavity may be a source of infection contamination of almost any organ or system, i.e. mouth cavity infection may go very easily from the mouth cavity and develop all over the organism. Toxins produced by microbes in the mouth cavity may also have systemic effect on the human body, changing its normal reactivity, i.e. changing and distorting its normal reaction to many environmental factors, which results frequently in heavy diseases.
As it is usual in industry, we produce different devices and means to simplify humans’ life, vary their everyday life and make people’s industrial and office labor easier. However we forget an important thing: it is the safety of human being surrounded by pathogenic microorganisms. Unfortunately, it took place with toothbrush. Each time we buy a new toothbrush, we enjoy its colors, unusual forms of bristles and the handle, but we never think of the necessity to disinfect the bristles of this toothbrush. Meantime in making hygienic procedures to cleanse dental enamel, gingivae and dorsum of tongue we do not consider the fact that by removing dental, gingival and tongue plagues we transfer numerous colonies of microorganisms from the mouth cavity to the toothbrush bristles. These ones start to grow exponentially in warm and wet conditions of the bathroom and with certain digest medium (after eating). And all the necessary conditions exist for it: direct and other light is absent; no ambient temperature differential; digest medium is present. In the evening, before going to sleep, a human being puts himself/herself the pathogenic microorganisms developed by factors of tens and hundreds on the bristles after the morning procedure, and immunity of a healthy human being cannot stand them. We even never think of cleanness of toothbrush bristles at the time of outbreak of flue epidemics and other viral and bacterial diseases. We think of administering antibiotics only in good time so as not to fall ill or be up and about. … However in receiving treatment against acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) we put viruses of flue in more and more quantities themselves by means of toothbrushes; and T-lymphocytes and T-active lymphocytes of our body cannot stand viruses and other bacteria developing strongly, which results in long illness, its change into chronic stages and other diseases. Viral infection may serve as an initiator of attaching a bactericidal pathogen in the future such as existing and activated Staphylococcus aureus, causing heavy diseases of respiratory tract.
It was known earlier that blue spectrum of visible light is more efficient in destruction of bacteria containing black porphyrins, i.e. ferrum-containing bacteria producing black pigment in the mouth cavity and causing periodontal diseases, in particular, caries. In 2003, the scientific and production company "AVERS" (NPK "AVERS") conducted studies of the effects of blue light with the wavelengths of 435 – 450 nm on four species of bacteria producing black pigment (P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, P. nigrescens and P. melaninogenica). The bacterial cultures irradiated by blue light were destructed within several minutes at the emission intensity of 2,000 – 4,000 mcd; when the light flow intensity was increased by a factor of 2 – 3, bacteria were destructed within 20 – 30 seconds. Bacteria containing many porphyrins were more sensitive to irradiation and destructed within first seconds of irradiation whereas P. gingivalis containing 100 times less porphyrins was alive within 2 minutes until its light-sensitive porphyrins oxidized and destructed lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
In April 2014, jointly conducted studies of NPK "AVERS" and the Chair of microbiology, virology and immunology of the Novosibirsk State Medical University for the assessment of simultaneous effect of ultraviolet and blue light with various expositions on strains of Staphylococcus aureus (cessation of growth, reduction in virulence, destruction of microbes) and also P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, P. nigrescens and P. melaninogenica were completed. As a result of these studies the following findings were obtained:
a. Suppression of growth of Staphylococcus aureus colonies on egg-yolk agar with salt (as compared with control) under the effect of blue and ultraviolet spectra of light depending on exposition time was found. At the exposition time of 60 sec the suppression was 68% (146 and 60.6 CFU, respectively) and virulence was absent completely. At the exposition time of 120 sec the suppression was 82% (146 and 26.2 CFU, respectively).
b. Suppression of growing the colonies of four species of bacterial strains (P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, P. nigrescens and P. melaninogenica) on egg-yolk agar with salt (as compared with control) under the effect of blue and ultraviolet spectra of light depending on exposition time was found. At the exposition time of 60 sec the suppression was 78% (128 and 32 CFU, respectively). At the exposition time of 120 sec, complete destruction occurred.
c.Complete destruction of pathogenic microorganisms in the human mouth cavity as a result of blue and ultraviolet light spectra effect was observed at the exposition time of 180 sec.
These studies provided the basis for NPK "AVERS" to elaborate a device for complete disinfection of toothbrush bristles after its use in the mornings and in the evenings. This new invention (Bactericidal Cleanser of Toothbrush "AVERS-DEZ") was presented at the 113th International Exhibition held in Paris in the period from the 1st to the 15th of May 2014; the Golden Medal and Crystal Medal were awarded for it. Our company started commercial production of this device in September 2014. This small device has 2 emitters of ultraviolet and 2 emitters of blue light spectra. After turning the device on, the time of simultaneous exposition to be provided by the emitters is 180 seconds enabling complete disinfection of toothbrush bristles against all the species of pathogenic microorganisms existing in the human mouth cavity, which have built up on the toothbrush bristles during hygienic procedures in the morning and in the evening. The device software provides operation after pressing the start button. This device is intended for individual use at home and in travels. As far as family needs are concerned, a device was elaborated to disinfect 5 toothbrushes at the same time. All the devices and the principles of application are covered by the patents of the Russian Federation.
This devise is intended for complete disinfection of toothbrush bristles after use for hygienic purposes by human beings through simultaneous ultraviolet and blue light spectra effect.
During 2016, all efforts of JSC "Avers" will be dedicated primarily towards the testing of the following types of produce: phototherapeutic devices, physiotherapeutic devices, medical, veterinary and home appliance technologies.